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1. Circulation. 2009 Aug 25;120(8):656-62. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.827642.
Epub 2009 Aug 10.
Optimism, cynical hostility, and incident coronary heart disease and mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative.
Tindle HA, Chang YF, Kuller LH, Manson JE, Robinson JG, Rosal MC, Siegle GJ,
University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Circulation. 2010 May 18;121(19):e407; author reply e408.
BACKGROUND: Trait optimism (positive future expectations) and cynical, hostile
attitudes toward others have not been studied together in relation to incident
coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality in postmenopausal women.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were 97 253 women (89 259 white, 7994 black)
from the Women’s Health Initiative who were free of cancer and cardiovascular
disease at study entry. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation
Test-Revised and cynical hostility by the cynicism subscale of the Cook Medley
Questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models produced adjusted hazard ratios
(AHRs) for incident CHD (myocardial infarction, angina, percutaneous coronary
angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass surgery) and total mortality (CHD,
cardiovascular disease, or cancer related) over approximately 8 years. Optimists
(top versus bottom quartile ["pessimists"]) had lower age-adjusted rates (per 10
000) of CHD (43 versus 60) and total mortality (46 versus 63). The most cynical,
hostile women (top versus bottom quartile) had higher rates of CHD (56 versus 44)
and total mortality (63 versus 46). Optimists (versus pessimists) had a lower
hazard of CHD (AHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.99), CHD-related mortality (AHR 0.70,
95% CI 0.55 to 0.90), cancer-related mortality (blacks only; AHR 0.56, 95% CI
0.35 to 0.88), and total mortality (AHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.93). Most (versus
least) cynical, hostile women had a higher hazard of cancer-related mortality
(AHR 1.23, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.40) and total mortality (AHR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07 to
1.27; this effect was pronounced in blacks). Effects of optimism and cynical
hostility were independent.
CONCLUSIONS: Optimism and cynical hostility are independently associated with
important health outcomes in black and white women. Future research should
examine whether interventions designed to change attitudes would lead to altered
PMID: 19667234 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Was will uns diese Studie sagen: Dass man [hier: "frau"] mit einer optimistischeren Einstellung die Chance hat, weniger leicht zu erkranken.
Und: dass selbst ein eigeredete positive Haltung in dieser Richtung Wirkung zeigt.